The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. Since Trump`s announcement, U.S. envoys – as well as on behalf – have continued to participate in U.N. climate negotiations to shore up the details of the agreement. Meanwhile, thousands of heads of state and government have intervened across the country to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris agreement. City and state officials, business leaders, universities and individuals included a base amount to participate in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the United States Climate Alliance, We Are Still In and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at the local, regional and national levels.
Each of these efforts focuses on the willingness of the United States to work toward the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to lead the country in the opposite direction. “Citizens everywhere need to be more politically engaged and policy makers need to significantly improve their plans to combat climate change,” he said. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane are gases that accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent radiation from the Earth`s surface to space, creating what is called the greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the main international panel on this issue, the concentration of these thermal gases has increased significantly since pre-industrial times and has not been observed for at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the main cause of climate change) has increased by 40 per cent, nitrous oxide by 20 per cent and methane by 150 per cent since 1750, mainly due to the burning of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it is “extremely likely” that these emissions have been primarily responsible for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. Meanwhile, deforestation and forest degradation have also contributed to their fair share of global carbon emissions. Those who have and contribute to anthropogenic climate change have also benefited from being part of the agreement of a new market-based instrument, the Sustainable Development Mechanism.
In a society dominated by large groups, this seems to be the preferred solution of our political leaders. The history of market-based solutions to environmental problems shows that they are less effective than regulatory approaches, which clearly define a goal to be met. Take, for example, the European carbon market, which has so far failed. However, the agreement also focuses on highly market-based approaches that reveal a compromise and hopefully leave an opportunity to prove again what is really a good thing.