The “causes” argument is closely linked to the reasons for promoting regional economic integration, job creation and alternative opportunities for young Africans at the regional level. This seems to serve the interests of both sides, reducing the migratory pressure on the EU and supporting the economic development programme of African countries. But the evidence shows that it is evolution that fuels migration, both within and on other continents. Aid and trade diplomacy will not reduce migratory pressure, but will promote mobility, and policies to discourage migratory pressures will fail in many cases. It will be necessary to see whether improving regional mobility, integration and employment opportunities will reduce the migratory pressure on Europe. Until then, it may take time. While most regional economic communities have free movement agreements and formulate migration strategies, the political will and dynamics to implement them are weak. Policymakers still need to adapt to the increased mobility opportunities in Africa. The content of the declaration is not revolutionary – many of them have been highlighted previously in strategic documents, without triggering action. Despite the summit`s declarations of “strong and unequivocal political will,” they alone do not provide solutions. Three challenges need to be met to make the partnership a real “breakthrough”: discussions on mobility between Africa and the EU at the preparatory meeting of senior officials were limited to the mobility of students and businessmen – barely Dlamini-Zua`s revolutionary vision of “welcome channels through airports and ports”.
One of the most interesting new initiatives is the “mobility partnerships” between the European Union and third countries on the other (see the Council`s conclusions on Partnerships for Mobility and Circular Migration as part of the comprehensive migration approach of 10 December 2007). The first two pilot partnerships between the EU and Moldova and Cape Verde were concluded on 21 May 2008. Other partnerships are being negotiated with Georgia and Senegal. Although the overall objective of these partnerships is the joint management responsible for migration flows, the agreements distinguish three more specific objectives: the project will evaluate the four pilot partnerships already concluded (Cape Verde and Moldova) or under negotiation (Senegal and Georgia). A comparative analysis of these different partnerships will provide information on the factors that can lead to the success or failure of different aspects of partnerships. In order to assess the participation of individual Member States, the project will also focus on at least two EU Member States participating in these partnerships. Data collection is carried out in national capitals, Brussels and the third countries concerned. Anna Knoll interviews David Khoudour of the OECD on the interaction between politics, migration and development ECDPM Video interview, 22 July 2015 This agreement between India and Mongolia on space cooperation would focus on areas such as space science, technologies and applications, including Earth remote sensing, satellite communications and satellite navigation , space science and planetary research, the use of space systems and space and space applications.